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West Nile as of Jun 02

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WEST NILE VIRUS Update: By Country and State by State

Update current as of date indicated for each entry

In 2002, WNV has been detected in Canada, Israel and in at least 16 states in the US, as well as Washington DC (Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee Texas, and Virginia).
For an historical summary of WNV in the US (and the world) see ERAPs WNV Summary. For a sense of the geographic spread of WNV across the United States or within a particular state, see the USGS Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information West Nile Virus map pages. However, as of June 3, 2002 these maps reflect data from only 14 states that have submitted data: Bird surveillance data from Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Virginia and Washington DC. Veterinary surveillance data (horses in all cases) from Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania. Human surveillance data (negative in all cases) from Alabama, Louisiana, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania, and mosquito surveillance data (negative) from LA, NC, and PA. Data-reporting is expected to improve following Memorial Day, when WNV surveillance programs begin in many states.

In 2001, WNV was detected in 27 US states (and Washington DC, as well as in Romania, Israel, Canada, and the Cayman Islands in the Caribbean. US states included: Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri , New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, Wisconsin.

In addition to states where WNV has previously been detected, the following states have WNV surveillance programs: Arizona, California, Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming.

  • Alabama: (ADPH checked June 19 2002) In 2001, a 44 year old man died from WNV, the fifth person in the nation and the first human casualty in Alabama (infected late Aug 2001, died Oct 30).
    USDA APHIS announced on Sept 14, 2001 2 equine WNV cases (stable-mates in Dale County, SE Alabama)--the first horses with clinical WNV infection in the state, became ill late Aug and appeared to have recovered [More]. An additional horse tested WNV-positive in Dallas Co the week of Oct 13 and another in Mobile Co (SW). There were a total of 4 WNV-positive horses in 3 counties according to USDA APHIS.
    WNV in birds was first confirmed Aug 27, 2001 (from Jefferson Co, center of the state and the location of Alabama's largest city, Birmingham). Count as of Nov 13 2001: 53 WNV-positive birds state wide, 35 from Jefferson Co and 9 from Montgomery Co [More].
    [Alabama Dept. of Public Health News Releases:]

  • Arizona: (AZ News checked June 19 2002) WNV has not been detected in Arizona. AZ has active WNV surveillance May through Oct.
    [AZ DOHS News:]

  • Arkansas: (ADH checked June 19 2002) On Oct 4, 2001, the Arkansas Department of Health and the Livestock and Poultry Commission reported the first WNV case in the state: 1 dead WNV-positive blue jay in Union County (bordering on Louisiana) [More]. As of Nov 13, 2001, 4 WNV-positive birds had been found in the state.
    [Healthy Arkansas News Releases:]

  • California (CA WNV checked June 19 2002) WNV has not been detected in California. CA began WNV surveillance in 2001.
    [CA WNV Surveillance]

  • Canada: (Updated June 19 2002) WNV has been found in a dead crow found in S. Mississauga, Peel Region of Ontario (just west of Toronto) on May 19, nearly 3 months earlier than the first detection of WNV-positive birds in 2001 (crow found Aug 8 in Windsor, Ontario) [More]. Preliminary tests indicate WNV in a second crow found in Woodstock, Oxford Co, Ontario found June 4, 2002. On May 15, 2002, Health Canada with other federal and provincial ministries began WNV surveillance for the 2002 mosquito season. All provinces are doing surveillance, but testing of dead birds is limited in Newfoundland and Labrador where known WNV vector species of mosquitoes have not previously been detected.
    WNV was first confirmed Aug 23, 2001 in a young-of-year male crow found August 8 in Windsor, Ontario (a city right across the river from Detroit, in the southernmost part of Canada). By end of 2001, 128 birds were confirmed WNV-positive (76 bird cases were identified by Sept. 25, 25 between Sept 25 and Oct 9; 21 between Oct 9 and Nov 8; and none after Nov 9). Distribution of WNV-positive birds is centered in the Toronto and Windsor Ontario areas and the Regions between them, with findings in Durham, Niagara, Halton, Hamilton-Wentworth, Peel, Toronto, and York Regions near Toronto and Lake Ontario, and the Chatham-Kent, Lambton, Middlesex-London and Windsor-Essex Regions near Detroit, US [More]. Dr Harvey Artsob, chief of zoonotic diseases at Health Canada, Winnipeg, had examined a crow from the area in 2000 that tested WNV-positive on a first test, but because of its decayed condition, could not be confirmed on follow up tests.
    [Population and Public Health Branch of Health Canada:
    Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre:
    Ontario Public Health-West Nile Virus:

  • Caribbean: (Updated June 14 2002) A WNV Surveillance workshop was held on Apr 29-May 3, 2002 at CAREC, Trinidad and Tobago.
    On Oct 17, 2001, US CDC confirmed that a 32-year old man who lives on the small island of Cayman Brac in the Cayman Islands (due south of Miami, south of Cuba and NW of Jamaica) was hospitalized in late Aug 2001 with WNV. He had not traveled outside the Cayman Islands during the previous 6 months and hence, this was the first case of WNV in the Cayman Islands and the greater Caribbean Region [More]. Health officials said that subsequently they "would test any dead birds that are found." It is unclear whether bird and mosquito surveillance had already been underway or if they are just beginning as result of the human case. Ten mosquito pools from Cayman Brac and 1 from the main island of Grand Cayman all tested negative for the virus. This case was not surprising since several WNV cases were contracted earlier in 2001 in or near the Florida Keys, at the southern tip of the state, and only a hop, skip and jump away from the Caribbean Islands. [More on WNV Disease Pontential in Central and S. America]
    [Caribbean Epidemiology Centre:

  • Colorado (CO WNV checked June 19 2002) WNV has not been detected in Colorado. In 2001, 32 dead crows were tested for WNV; results were WNV-negative.
    [CO WNV Surveillance

  • Connecticut: (Updated June 19 2002) Surveillance for WNV-infected birds began May 6 2002, coordinated by the Dept of Public Health (DPH). As of May 31, 7 birds were submitted for testing, including 2 robins and 5 crows; 2 crows tested positive (found Apr 30 in NE Rocky Hill (Hartford Co), and May 16 in New Haven (New Haven Co)) [More].
    In 2001, WNV was detected in at least 7 of the 8 counties in CT. Six people were hospitalized with WNV, one of whom died (a woman in her nineties from New Haven (onset of symptoms in late Sept, died mid Oct, ann Oct 31) [More]. The first human cases of 2001 were announced Sept 7: 2 persons in their sixties (exposed early Aug, disease onset mid-Aug, hospitalized several days later and subsequently discharged). One was a tourist who had been vacationing in both Staten Island, NY and Norfolk, CT and thus may have contracted WNV in either place. The third case was a 70+ year old resident of West Haven who was likely exposed during the latter half of Aug, became ill at the end of Aug and as of early Sept still remained hospitalized in critical condition. Two additional cases were announced Sept 27: a Bridgeport resident in the 30s and a North Haven resident over 75 years. Both became ill the first week of Sept. In 2000 WNV was detected in one person with mild illness.
    USDA APHIS reported 11 horses tested WNV-positive in 5 counties (4 fatalities). The first WNV-positive horse was announced Aug 29. In 2000 7 horses had WNV, 4 recovered and 3 were euthanatized.
    As of Nov 7 2001, 442 birds of at least 13 species were identified WNV-positive; of that total 431 were Corvids (American or fish crow, or blue jay). At least 1061 birds were tested. By Sept 19, 182 birds had been confirmed WNV-positive, including crows, blue jays, a robin, a verio, a sparrow, a catbird, a great horned owl, a mourning dove, and a rock dove.
    As of Sept 12 2001, WNV had been detected in 12 of the nearly 100 mosquito pools tested (first findings announced July 19).
    [Connecticut Dept of Environmental Protection:

  • Delaware: (DHSS checked June 19 2002) An Oct 2 2001 DHSS press release reports 17 birds (mostly crows, some blue jays) WNV-positive [More]. The first cases of WNV in Delaware for 2001 were two dead crows found on Aug 16 and 17 in New Castle County (northern DE, ann Aug 30) out of 175 birds and more than 180 mosquito pools tested to that time by the DPH laboratory.
    The Dept of Natural Resources (DNR) announced Oct 4 the first confirmed finding of a WNV-positive mosquito pool (Culex), collected in Wilmington Sept 14. Previously, a mosquito pool announced on June 29 as WNV-positive retested negative (ann. July 9).
    A horse from Sussex County (near Georgetown) that died on Oct 10 tested WNV-positive in preliminary testings. This marked the first occurrence of WNV in Sussex County, as well as the first equine case of WNV in Delaware [More].
    [Delaware Health and Social Services Public Information Page:

  • Florida: (Updated June 19 2002) On Feb 18, 2002, FL Dept of Health announced WNV-positive birds from Alachua, Calhoun, and Volusia Counties, and 3 horses in Marion Co [More]. In total, 7 horses have been confirmed WNV-positive in FL, 1 from Duval (NE), 4 from Marion (northern), 1 from Polk (central) and 1 from Dade (southern) Counties.
    As of June 10, 2002, 4 birds (Palm Beach Co 1; Putnam Co 1; Alachua 1; Liberty Co 1) and 3 sentinel chickens (Palm Beach Co 2; Volusia Co 1) had tested WNV-positive.
    In 2001, 12 human cases were confirmed. Florida was the site of the first reported human infection for 2001, announced July 27, in a 73 year-old man from Madison County (onset around July 15); the second, a 64 year-old woman from Madison Co (ann. Aug 4); the third, a 40-year-old man from Jefferson Co (ann. Aug 20); the fourth, a 73-year-old woman from Sarasota Co who is believed to have contracted the virus while visiting Marathon in the Florida Keys in July (ann. Aug 24); the fifth, a 50 year old man from Monroe Co (ann. Sept 19); the sixth, a 73 year old woman from Washington Co (ann. Sept 21); the seventh, a 54 year old woman from Monroe Co. The two cases in Monroe Co add weight to suspicions that the woman from Sarasota Co contracted the virus while in the Florida Keys (Monroe Co); the eighth, a 44-year old male from Duval County in the NE corner of the state, the location of Jacksonville (ann. Oct 3); the ninth, a 36-year-old woman in Leon Co in the northern panhandle, site of Tallahassee, who developed symptoms in mid-Sept and is now recuperating (ann. Oct 10). An additional case is reported from Putnam Co (near Duval). The latest cases as well as several others in Connecticut, Florida, NJ and NY are in people in their thirties, forties or early fifties. At least 49 of 68 Florida counties are on medical alert for WNV. Three of the human cases in Florida appear to have been contracted in or near the Florida Keys, at the southern tip of the state, only a hop, skip and jump away from the Caribbean Islands, where WNV has now been confirmed in the Cayman Islands.
    The first confirmation of WNV in Florida was announced July 6 2001, in a crow found in Jefferson Co. As of Nov 13 2001, WNV has been confirmed in 545 wild birds (up from 217 on Sept 21), 170 sentinel chickens (up from 21 on Sept 21), and 17 mosquito pools (same number reported Sept 21). Most of the WNV activity was in the northern part of the state [More on Weekly surveillance updates].
    The vast majority of equine cases in 2001 were in Florida (43 as of Aug 24 2001; 74 as of Sept 12; 105 as of Oct 1; 139 as of Oct 15; 205 as of Oct 26 in 30 counties; 281 as of Nov 13 in 33 counties; 492 as of Dec 31 in 42 counties), mostly in northern FL (except for recent cases in Broward and Palm Beach {ann. Oct 20} Counties, in southern FL), and additional cases in the same region but across the border in southern Georgia. Out of the 492 horses, 82 died or were euthanatized.
    [Florida Dept of Health West Nile Virus Information:
    Florida Dept of Agriculture and Consumer Services WNV/EEE Information:

  • Georgia: (Updated June 19 2002) As of June 6 2002, 2 crows in DeKalb Co, a brown-headed cowbird in Gwinnett Co, and a crow in Henry Co (all in north central GA--Atlanta Metro Area) were confirmed WNV-positive. The first WNV-positive bird was found May 15, 2002.
    In 2001, 6 persons from widely dispersed sites (5 counties) within the state were confirmed WNV-positive. DPH advised that mosquitoes may persist throughout the year in the mild climates of southern Georgia, presenting some year-round WNV risk. The first person to die from WNV in 2001 was a 71-year-old Atlanta (Fulton Co) woman who died Aug 11 after 12 days of treatment [
    More]. On Dec 4 Georgia DPH announced 5 additional cases with illness onset presumed between Sept and Oct: a 68-year-old man from Pierce Co in SE Georgia, a 61-year-old from Macon Co (west central), a 73-year-old from Richmond Co (east central on South Carolina border), a 70-year-old from Wayne Co (SE, adjacent to Pierce Co) and another patient from Wayne Co.
    By end of 2001, 68 horses in 26 counties were confirmed WNV-positive (22 fatalities). The first case was announced Aug 16. According to Fort Dodge Animal Health, over 25,000 doses of WNV vaccine were distributed to Georgia veterinarians during the month of Aug 2001.
    Three flamingos (2 adult, 1 chick) that died at Zoo Atlanta late Aug-early Sept 2001 tested WNV-positive, zoo officials confirmed Nov 28. 2001 The virus was discovered in routine examinations of the dead birds. "Natural causes" were given as the official cause of death because the zoo said that "we can't say conclusively that they died [as a result of WNV infection], only that they tested positive. Little is known about what symptoms flamingos would show once infected, so it's difficult to diagnose" [Note that disease pathology in the flamingos that died at the Bronx Zoo in NYC in 1999 is detailed in Steele et al. 2000. Pathology of Fatal West Nile Virus Infections in Native and Exotic Birds... Veterinary Pathology 37(3): 208-224].
    Georgia's first indication of WNV was an infected crow in Lowndes Co in July 2001. By end of 2001, 326 birds were found WNV-positive in 55 geographically dispersed counties. Testing in Georgia was done by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study at the University of Georgia in Athens.
    On Sept 29 2001, a Georgia newspaper reported that a dog showing clinical symptoms of WNV was confirmed to be infected, treated by its vet, and recovered sufficiently to go home. Later, it was thought that WNV neither sickened nor even infected the 2-year-old male Labrador retriever. There are still no confirmed clinical canine cases in the US [More]. However, in 1999 CDC found 3 positive sera from healthy dogs in a preliminary screening of 84 dog serum samples from New York City [More] and similar findings had been made decades previously in Africa. (There was a published report of WNV isolated from a dog in Botswana, S. Africa in 1982).
    [Georgia Division of Public Health:

  • Illinois: (Updated June 19 2002) Surveillance for WNV in Illinois began for 2002 on May 1. So far, 9 crows have tested WNV-positive from Edgar Co (2; Central IL on Indiana border), Cook Co (3; Chicago Metro Area), Kane Co (2; just west of Chicago), and Clark Co (1; Central IL on Indiana border), Vermilion Co (1; Central IL on Indiana border. The first occurance in 2002 was a dead crow found May 2, 2002 in the Hampshire area of Kane Co. Due to heavy rains and flooding this spring in Illinois, questions have been raised about an increased risk this year for mosquito-borne diseases [More].
    WNV was first confirmed in Illinois Sept 5 2001, in 2 dead crows from the Chicago metropolitan area. In 2001 a total of 138 birds from 7 counties near Chicago and the southern tip of Lake Michigan (Cook, Crawford, DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry, and Will) tested positive. In addition, 2 horses, 1 from Cook Co and 1 from Kane Co tested WNV-positive (1 fatality). The Cook Co horse that became ill Sept 30 had no history of recent travel and was the first confirmed equine case of clinical WNV infection detected in Illinois (ann Oct 25 2001).
    Ten mosquito pools collected in the Cook Co suburbs of Chicago were also identified WNV-positive in 2001.
    [Illinois Dept of Public Health:

  • Indiana: (Updated June 19 2002) As of June 18 2002, 4 dead crows were confirmed WNV-positive in Indiana from Marion Co (1; location of Indianapolis, central IN), Allen Co (1; location of Fort Wayne, on Ohio border), Porter Co (1; on Lake Michigan), and St. Joseph Co (location of South Bend, on Michigan border) [More]. The first WNV-positive bird was found June 5, 2002. On May 1, the ISDH reported wet and warm conditions in Indiana, ideal for the growth of mosquito populations and expect a higher risk of transmission of WNV in 2002.
    In 2001, 47 birds in 7 counties were confirmed WNV-positive, the first case of WNV in IN was confirmed Aug 21 2001, in a crow from central IN (Marion Co -- location of Indianapolis) [More]. The first equine case was was a 5-year-old mare from NC IN (illness onset Oct 16; ann fatality Oct 30). The cases from far flung corners of the state indicated that the virus was present throughout the state. As of Sept 7, the Indiana State Department of Health had collected and tested 4643 live birds from 33 counties, 8410 mosquitoes from 13 counties, as well as 13 dead birds from 7 counties.
    [Indiana State Dept of Health News Releases:

  • Iowa: (IDPH checked June 19 2002) On Sept 14 2001, a WNV-positive crow was reported in Scott Co (eastern IA) in the town of Walcott (quad cities area), the first case of WNV in Iowa.
    [Iowa Dept of Public Health News Releases:

  • Israel: (Updated May 22 2002) On May 13, 2002 the Israeli Environment Ministry reported that WNV-positive mosquitoes were detected during a routine inspection in the area of Wadi Shikma, near Kibbutz Or Haner in the Negev Desert. The Jerusalem Post reports that "local authorities are taking action to spray [insecticide]." In 2000 and 2001 infected mosquitos were first detected in August [More]. It is thought that the infected mosquitoes were detected earlier in 2002 due to the heavier rains than usual during the past winter and into the spring (600 mm in the Negev this year, as compared to an average 350 mm).
    A Ministry of Health spokesperson reported in a May 19 ProMed posting that the Ministries of the Environment, Health and Agriculture (Veterinary services) have established a multi disciplinary inter-ministerial committee and activated regional field teams for surveillance. Culex pipiens complex and Culex perexiguus have been implicated as WNV vectors in Israel.
    In 2001 44 clinical human cases were recorded in Israel (3 fatal), with first reports of human illness in early Aug 2001. In 2000 452 human cases were reported, primarily from the central and northern parts of the country, peaking in Sept and declining in Oct (29 fatalities, all but one older than 68). Israel is located on the migratory route of many bird species between Europe and Africa. The first descriptions of WNV date to the 1940s, with repeated outbreaks during the 1950s and sporadic episodes since. [For more information search the WNV Bibliography of Scientific Literature, keyword Middle East and see "West Nile Fever in Israel 1999-2000: from geese to humans" Bin et al. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 951 :127-142 (2001).]
    [Jerusalem Post:

  • Kansas: (KDHE checked June 19 2002) WNV has not been detected in Kansas. In 2002, 64 crows have been tested for WNV; results are WNV-negative. WNV surveillance began in Sept 2001 in conjuction with Kansas State University, with 600 mosquito pools, 100 sentinel chickens, and 45 birds tested. All 2001 results were WNV-negative.
    [KDHE News Releases:

  • Kentucky: (KDOH checked June 19 2002) In 2001, all cases of WNV were found in the NC parts of the state. As of Nov 15 2001, 8 horses in 8 counties (6 fatalities) were identified WNV-positive, of 111 horses tested. A ninth horse was diagnosed in Kentucky, but was exposed in Florida. The 3-year-old horse from Bourbon Co (northern KY) confirmed WNV-positive on Sept 19 (disease onset on or before Aug 23; ann Aug 31) which had not recently travelled, was the first time WNV had been detected in the state.
    As of Nov 15, 44 birds were found WNV-positive, of 514 birds tested. The first WNV-positive birds for Kentucky were confirmed Sept 19: 1 crow and 2 sparrows from Jefferson Co, 1 grackle from Woodford Co.
    Six of 381 mosquito pools tested WNV-positive in 2001.
    [Kentucky Dept of Health:

  • Louisiana: (Updated June 19 2002) There have been 12 WNV-positive bird tests so far in 2002 (10 blue jays, and 2 cardinals) from 4 counties (East Baton Rouge Co, 4; Tangipohoa Co, 4; West Baton Rouge Co, 3; Ascension Co, 1) [More]. The first occurance of WNV was confirmed Mar 21, in a cardinal found in Baton Rouge [More]. By May 23, 2002, 3 horses in SW Louisiana had tested WNV-positive (1 fatality). Insecticide application began in Calcasieu Parish, the affected area, when blood samples were drawn from the horses May 10.
    The 3 human cases of encephalitis reported in LA April 2002 were ruled by the CDC as not WNV or SLE, but a related virus.
    The Office of Public Health ann June 18, 2002, that testing of birds will be suspended in Tangipahoa Co and West Baton Rouge Co (Port Allen only), areas of the state where health officials know the virus is present and well-established [More] . On May 8, LA DOH announced they are seeking approval for $1.96 million funding for controlling mosquitoes statewide.
    In 2001, the first (and only 2001) human case in LA was a middle-age "drifter" from Kenner, just west of New Orleans (infected mid-Sept; hospitalized Sept 29; ann Oct 22). This case was not thought to be an indicator of high levels of WNV in the state with general risk to the human population, but rather to reflect a somewhat atypical situation of a person who spent much time out-of-doors and "on the streets" near the area where WNV activity had already been confirmed in birds. "It is not extraordinary that a person who is outside a lot and not taking [anti-mosquito] precautions has come down with the disease," said Dr. Raoult Ratard, state epidemiologist. "But I don't think we are going to have an outbreak. It's very late in the season." CDC cautioned that WNV can be transmitted year-round in mild southern climates.
    In 2001, according to USDA APHIS there were 9 equine cases (10 according to Louisiana OPH) in 4 southern parishes with 3 fatalities. The first case was announced Sept 4 (a 7-year-old Quarter-horse mare unable to move Aug 21, euthanatized Aug 23).
    In 2001, 6 birds (all from Jefferson Parish, just outside New Orleans) were confirmed WNV-positive (first one, a blue jay found July 23, ann Aug 15). An AP news story reported that officials with Mosquito Control Inc., which contracts with Jefferson Parish to spray insecticide, said that the company surveyed the East Jefferson area where the birds were found for obvious mosquito breeding grounds, but none were found. However, inspectors said mosquitoes may have been able to breed in standing water that pooled under buildings where the ground had subsided. The company had already stepped up efforts to track populations of the mosquito species that were known to carry the virus. It was also using trucks to spray the highest concentration of insecticide allowed by the EPA within a 3-mile radius of where the dead birds were found. "The entire parish is getting sprayed with a higher concentration, but the area where the birds were found will get the highest," Machado said.
    The cluster of suspected WNV cases in Ouachita Parish in the north-central part of the state was confirmed in early Sept 2001 to be St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE)--making this what appears to be the largest outbreak on record of SLE in Louisiana, with 63 confirmed human flavivirus cases, including 2 deaths as of Sept 23 2001. Five weeks into the epidemic, the epidemic curve appeared to be winding down, with new cases found at a rate of about 1/day. Presumed vector was Culex quinquefasciatus, the Southern House Mosquito, which breeds and behaves much like Culex pipiens, the Northern House Mosquito.
    [Louisiana Dept of Health and Hospitals:
    Office of Public Health:

  • Maine: (Updated June 19 2002) In 2001, 7 birds tested WNV-positive in Sabattus, South Berwick and Portland areas, all in the SW part of ME, near the New Hampshire border. The first WNV detections reported by Bangor Daily News (BDN) were 2 crows, 1 bluejay and 1 sharp-shinned hawk that was later determined to be WNV-negative (ann Oct 5) (all found between Aug 22 and Aug 31; ann Sept 12).
    [Maine West Nile Virus Information Center:

  • Maryland: (Updated June 19, 2002) June 1, 2002 a fatality was ann for the first human case in 2001 [More]. The first WNV-positive bird was found in Price Georges Co (DC Metro Area) June 17. This is the only positive result out of over 250 birds tested. Of the 26 human WNV tests done between May 1-June 18, 17 were WNV-negative and 9 are pending.
    In 2001 the first infected birds were reported in May, and Maryland eventually recorded 454 WNV-positive birds as well as 6 human and 2 equine cases. Most cases were from the Baltimore and DC areas. Both of the two human fatalities in 2001 were persons suffering from other "chronic debilitating diseases."
    The first human case in 2001 was a 73-year-old West Baltimore man (admitted to hospital Aug 22) who died May 25, 2002, 9 months after contracting WNV. The second was a 63-year-old woman from Eastpoint in Baltimore Co announced Sept 7 (admitted to a hospital in late Aug unconscious and suffering from seizures, appeared to have stabilized but then died during weekend of Sept 8-9 from causes unrelated to the virus). The third was a 70-year-old woman in Baltimore (ann Sept 20) died in late Sept, succumbing to an underlying illness. The fourth and fifth cases were announced on Sept 21; a 79 year old woman from Eastpoint and a 74 year old man from the Carney area of Baltimore Co. The sixth case was a 76-year-old man from Prince George's Co (disease onset Sept 29). The Maryland Dept of Agriculture sprayed mosquito adulticides in areas in the vicinity of Eastpoint, where there was a high concentration of mosquitoes because of its proximity to water.
    In 2001, according to USDA APHIS there were two WNV-positive horses (1 fatality) [More], but according to the Maryland Abrovirus Surveillance Final Report for 2001 there were 7 WNV-positive horses, of 34 tested [More]. On Sept 26 2001, WNV was for the first time positively identified in 4 horses, 3 in Baltimore and 1 in Cecil Co. The animals infected were mostly older pets. Fort Dodge Animal Health shipped 35,000 doses of WNV equine vaccine to MD in 2001.
    A total of 454 birds (mostly crows, a few blue jays and one cooper's hawk; first finding ann May 25) confirmed WNV-positive of 1503 tested and 17,562 reported dead birds.
    In 2001, 18 mosquito pools tested WNV-positive (first one ann July 18) of 12,807 tested.
    [Maryland West Nile Virus Information Page:

  • Massachusetts: (Updated June 19 2002) A crow found May 21 in Wakefield (Middlesex Co) was the first WNV-positive case in 2002, detected 7 weeks earlier than the first MA detection in 2001 [More]. As of June 13, 1004 dead birds had been reported, 61 submitted for testing, 55 tested and 4 confirmed positive. Positive results are all from Middlesex Co (Wakefield 2; Stoneham 2).
    WNV was detected in MA in 2000, but there were no clinical human cases until 2001, when 3 cases were reported (1 fatality): a 70-year-old man from Woburn, a NE suburb of Boston (symptoms onset and hospitalized Aug 21; died mid-Oct, ann Nov 14); an 89-year-old man from Acushnet (onset mid-Oct; ann of Nov 14); a 72-year-old man from Dartmouth (infected about Oct 22; onset of illness Nov 5; hospitalized Nov 8; ann Nov 29) [More].
    In 2001, 45 horses in 4 counties in SE MA tested WNV-positive (1 fatality), with onsets between Aug 28 and Oct 16. Confirmatory testing was done at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL).
    In 2001, 1104 WNV-positive birds (of 2402 tested and 10,906 reported dead birds) were identified from at least 64 towns (first one ann July 16), primarily in the eastern part of the state.
    In 2001, 35 mosquito pools were identified WNV-positive (first ann Aug 28), primarily bird-biting mosquitoes but at least 1 isolate was from human-biting mosquitoes in Franklin (Ochlerotatus japonicus, previously called Aedes japonicus, collected Aug 27).
    [Massachussetts Dept of Public Health:]
    [MA WNV Daily Update]

  • Michigan: (Updated June 19 2002) In 2002 WNV was first detected in a crow from Livonia found May 23 (Wayne Co, Detroit Metro Area). Currently the surveillance policy in Michigan is to accept dead crows from a county only until one WNV-positive crow is found. Note: this may create the illusion that WNV is less prevalent in Michigan than in surrounding states (source: R. Knepper, Saginaw Co Mosquito Abatement Comm, June 12, 2002).
    In 2001, 65 crows and blue jays were found WNV-positive in 10 southern MI counties, mostly in the Detroit area (Wayne, Oakland, Macomb, Ingham, Jackson, Wastenaw, Barry, Calhoun, Ottawa and Muskegon). The crows found in early Aug (ann Aug 23) were Michigans first WNV findings. Two mosquito pools also tested WNV-positive in Oakland and Macomb Co.
    [Michigan West Nile Virus Page:

  • Minnesota(Updated June 19 2002) The Minnesota DOH predicts WNV will be found in MN in 2002. Though the DOH had not reported any cases of WNV for 2001, they did conduct dead bird surveillance in cooperation with the Dept of Natural Resources; worked with the MN Board of Animal Health to encourage reporting of encephalitis in horses; worked with the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District to monitor local mosquito population levels; and conducted WNV testing on mosquito samples [More].
    [Minnesota Dept of Health:

  • Mississippi: (Updated June 19 2002) The first case of WNV was detected in a horse Sept 19 2001 in Lee Co (northern MS, near Alabama and Tennessee). According to USDA APHIS, there were 17 equine cases in 4 counties (7 fatalities), while the MSDH reported 21 WNV-positive horses in 2001. Of the 83 humans tested as of Oct 21 2001, all were WNV-negative.
    As of Oct 21 2001, 1 of 505 reported dead birds and 5 of 1411 wild birds tested WNV-positive.
    As of Oct 21 2001, all mosquitoes were negative for WNV, SLE, LAC and EEE of 40,606 mosquitoes and 11,289 pools were tested, though the Cache Valley Virus was detected in one of the mosquito samples [More].
    [Mississippi Dept of Health:

  • Missouri: (Updated June 19 2002) The Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services is expanding surveillance activities for 2002. In 2001, 8 crows tested WNV-positive in St Louis Co and St Louis City (eastern MO), with the first one found Sept 16 [More].
    [Missouri Dept of Health and Senior Services:

  • Montana: (Updated June 19 2002) WNV has not been detected in Montana. Four state agencies combined their expertise in Spring 2002 to begin monitoring for WNV [More].
    [MT DPHHS:

  • Nebraska: (Updated June 13 2002) WNV has not been found in Nebraska, but Wayne Kramer, medical entomologist with the Nebraska Health and Human Services System, said "Finding it this year in Nebraska is very likely." [More].
    In 2001, 17 birds, 1082 mosquito samples, and 594 sentinel chickens tested WNV-negative. In 2000, 1 bird, 125 mosquito samples, and 120 sentinel chickens tested WNV-negative.
    [NE Health and Human Services System:

  • New Hampshire: (Updated June 19 2002) WNV surveillance began June 1 2002 for humans, horses and birds, and July 1 for mosquitoes. As of June 19, 2002, 15 dead birds have been tested for WNV; results were negative.
    In 2001, 2 horses (illness onset Nov) from Rockingham Co (SW, on coast), 83 of 889 birds (first one found May 11, most from southern NH) and 3 positive mosquito pools (Rockingham and Strafford Co, both in SW NH) tested WNV-positive.
    In 2000, there were 7 WNV-positive birds of 405 tested.
    [New Hampshire Dept of Health and Human Services West Nile Virus Page:

  • New Jersey: (Updated June 20 2002) As of June 6 2002, 6 WNV-positive crows were confirmed of 48 birds tested (4 in Monmouth Co, on Jersey shore, just south of NYC; 1 in Morris Co, north central NJ; 1 in Bergen Co, NE NJ). The first ones were collected between Apr 16-May 3 2002. One mosquito pool of the 901 tested, has been WNV-positive in Monmouth Co [More]. By May 20 2002, DEP had stocked more than a quarter million mosquito eating fish in more than a dozen counties and donated 40,000 to Rockland Co, NY. Mosquito surveillance and larval control in these counties began late Mar/early Apr.
    In 2001, WNV was detected in all NJ counties (compared to 20 of 21 NJ counties in 2000). The first announcements were May 7 in crows, June 8 in mosquito pools and Aug 8 in sentinel chickens. In sum, WNV was detected in 1,073 crows (of 1,553 birds tested, mostly crows), 357 mosquito pools (of 4,937 tested) and 31 sentinel chickens (Monmouth Co) in 2001. Although mosquitoes were expected to be active in NJ until early Nov, the Oct 11 mosquito surveillance results included no WNV-positive mosquito pools.
    In 2001, there were 12 confirmed human cases (1 fatality) of the 102 humans tested, as compared to 6 human cases (1 fatality) in 2000. The first person in 2001 was hospitalized late July. The fatality was a 45 year old man from Carteret (likely bitten late July/early Aug; hospitalized Aug 21; developed complications, died Oct 4; ann Nov 14) [More].
    2001 human cases in NJ:
    1) 72-year-old woman from Bergenfield (Bergen Co--NE NJ, near NYC; hospitalized late July, ann Aug 29).
    2) 72-year old man from Camden City (Camden Co, hospitalized Aug 23; ann Sept 19)
    3) 66-year old man from Edison Township (Middlesex, hospitalized Aug 31; ann Sept 19)
    4) 78-year old woman from Westfield Township (Union; hospitalized Sept 5; ann Sept 19).
    5) 72-year old man from Newark (Essex Co, northern NJ; likely bitten mid-Aug with onset of illness late Aug; ann Oct 12.
    6) 38-year old woman from Pennsauken (Camden Co, southern NJ; likely bitten mid-Aug, with onset of illness late Aug; ann Oct 12). Other cases involving people in their 30s, 40s and early 50s had been reported in CT, NY and FL.
    7) 45-year-old Carteret man died Oct 4 (ann Nov 14).
    8) 75 year-old Harrison (Hudson Co) woman (most likely infected late July/early Aug; hospitalized mid-Aug; ann Dec 5). Her case presented some twists on the typical investigation: Preliminary infectious disease tests were negative and the patient was then tested and treated for her chronic heart condition. Subsequent tests showed WNV infection, but were inconclusive as to whether the infection was during this season or from the previous season. CDC later confirmed that the infection was from the 2001 season on the basis of an increase in antibody production from the initial to a convalescent serum, as is consistent with a more recent infection [More].
    9) 41-year old man from Pennsauken, Camden Co (confirmed WNV-positive by CDC Feb 8 2002). Husband of the 38-year old woman confirmed WNV-positive in Oct. Both were ill at the same time though he was not hospitalized.
    10) 81-year old man from Cranford (hospitalized Sept 21; confirmed WNV-positive Apr 25 2002 by CDC).
    11) 34-year old from Hillside (illness onset Sept 22; confirmed WNV-positive Apr 25 2002 by CDC).
    12) 54-year old from Paterson (hospitalized Sept 27; confirmed WNV-positive Apr 25 2002 by CDC) [More].
    According to USDA APHIS, in 2001 there were 33 equine cases in 10 counties (15 fatalities), many were reported late autumn or later.
    Every county in NJ received funding from a $2.4 million tire round-up program in 2001 (plus an additional $100,000 for clean-up of 80,000 tires at Nearpara Rubber in Hamilton) and the state proposed an additional $2.4 million in the fiscal year 2002 budget for tire clean-up activities.
    [NJ DOH-WNV:

  • New York: (Updated June 20 2002) On May 16 2002, NYS DOH reported the first WNV-positive dead bird in 2002 (Albany Co). As of June 19, 11 WNV-positive dead birds had been confirmed (Albany 5, Rockland 4, Nassau 2 [More]).
    In 2001 WNV activity was confirmed in 22 of 62 NY counties (primarily in the NYC metropolitan area) as compared to WNV activity confirmed in all but one of the 62 counties in 2000. Fifteen people were confirmed WNV-positive in 2001 (2 fatalities, Nassau Co, Long Island, adjacent to NYC). At least 4 affected with WNV are in their early fifties or younger (at least 13 people in the US who became severely ill with WNV 2001 were in this age group).
    In order of their announcement, the 2001 human cases were (details on 3 cases not found):
    1) 73-year old woman from Staten Island, NYC (onset July 26).
    2) 75-year old man from Queens, NYC ( ann Aug 22; onset Aug 14).
    3) 44-year old man who worked outdoors in Staten Island, NYC ( ann Aug 29; onset Aug 5) [More].
    4) 49-year-old female from Nesconset, Suffolk Co, LI ( ann Sept 6; onset Aug 23; hospitalized Aug 27; discharged Aug 31).
    5) 69-year old woman from Brooklyn ( ann Sept 21; symptoms onset Sept 2; hospitalized Sept 5).
    6) 51 year old man from Queens ( ann Sept 21; symptoms onset Sept 7; hospitalized Sept 9).
    7) 75 year old woman from Valley Stream, Nassau (ann Sept 28; symptoms onset Aug 28; hospitalized Aug 30).
    8) 77-year old man from East Meadow, Nassau Co ( ann Sept 28; symptoms onset Sept 14; hospitalized Sept 15; died Nov 22).
    9) 70-year old woman, also from East Meadow, Nassau Co ( ann Oct 2; symptoms onset Sept 21; hospitalized Sept 26; died Oct 26).
    10) 73-year old man from Seaford, Nassau Co ( ann Oct 2; symptoms onset Sept 21; hospitalized Sept 22).
    11) 46-year-old woman from Brooklyn, NYC ( ann Oct 6; symptoms onset Sept 9; hospitalized Sept 12) [More].
    12) A laboratory worker (ann Oct 26, Further information withheld to protect confidentiality).
    A Nov 24, 2001 article in the New York Times reported that the families of 2 persons in Nassau Co NY who allegedly died of WNV were planning to sue the county because mosquito adulticides were not used for WNV control. The County Health Dept spokesperson said that after the cases were diagnosed surveillance was increased in the area, but they did not find evidence of mosquito infestation to justify spraying. One death occured Nov 22 (77-year-old man) and the other (71-year old woman) on Oct 26; both people resided in East Meadow, Nassau Co, Long Island in NYS [More].
    In 2001, 22 equine cases were reported from Orange (1), Nassau (4) and Suffolk(17) counties, up from 15 reported Oct 26, 12 reported Oct 5 and 8 reported on Sept 28.
    In 2001, 732 dead birds from 21 counties (primarily in the NYC metropolitan area), and representing at least 22 species, were confirmed WNV-positive, up from 662 on Nov 26, 647 on Nov 16, 632 on Oct 26, 567 on Oct 5 and 529 birds on Sept 28 (Albany, Broome, Bronx, Brooklyn, Cattaraugus, Chemung, Dutchess, Erie, Herkimer, Jefferson, Manhattan, Monroe, Nassau, Onondaga, Putnam, Queens, Rockland, Staten Island, Suffolk, Ulster, and Westchester Counties). The first findings in 2001 were announced May 24. Also 71 live wild birds from NYC (Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island) tested WNV-positive with first one announced July 19.
    In 2001, 300 mosquito pools in 9 counties (Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Nassau, Queens, Rockland, Staten Island, Suffolk, Westchester Counties) tested WNV-positive, first announced July 19.
    In 2000, 1263 dead birds, 400 mosquito pools, 10 live birds, 8 sentinel chickens, 2 bats, 28 horses, 1 squirrel, 1 chipmunk and 14 humans were found WNV-positive.
    [NYS DOH--WNV:
    NYS Daily Update--WNV:

  • North Carolina: (NC Public Health Checked June 19 2002) WNV was first detected in 2000 in a dead crow found at Jordan Lake State Park in Chatham Co (central NC). The first detection of in 2001 was a dead blue jay found in Cabarrus Co (borders Mecklenburg Co in central NC) in Aug, ann Sept 17. In 2001, 6 horses in 4 counties tested WNV-positive (2 fatalities). The first detections in horses were from Hyde Co (1) and Camden Co (1) both on the Atlantic coast (ann Oct 9). A total of 9 birds (crows and blue jays) were confirmed WNV-positive for 2001.
    An Oct 10, 2001 statement from the NC Division of Public Health epidemiologist suggested that the suspected human case (ann Oct 3) was unlikely because the test results probably reflected a pre-existing flavivirus infection (probably yellow fever vaccine-induced antibody). The suspected case involved a 66-year old Florida man traveling through NC and other states in a recreational vehicle. He had spent several overnights near Greenville in Pitt Co, in the eastern part of the state, where he had noted a dead bird under his van. If this case had been confirmed, it would have been the first human case in NC, [
    [Public Health in NC--WNV:

  • North Dakota: (Updated June 19 2002) WNV has not been detected in North Dakota. Active surveillance began in May 2000. In 2001, 6 humans, 4 birds, 7 horses, and 14 mosquito pools tested WNV-negative.
    [ND DOH--WNV:

  • Ohio: (Updated June 19 2002) As of June 14 2002, 14 birds of more than 193 tested were confirmed WNV-positive from 10 counties (Cuyahoga 3; Fairfield 1; Franklin 1; Lake 3; Lorain 1; Mahoning 1; Morrow 1; Ottawa 1; Putnam 1; Warren 1). All mosquito pools of the 1846 tested are WNV-negative.
    The first confirmation of WNV in Ohio was announced Aug 1 2001 in a blue jay found in Lake Co (NE OH). Total WNV-positives in 2001: 280 birds (226 crows, 54 blue jays) of 942 dead birds tested; 6 live birds from 3 counties of 1,848 live birds tested; 26 mosquito pools pools of 91,590 mosquitos tested. All 969 horses and 274 humans tested were negative.
    [OH DOH--WNV:

  • Oklahoma: (Updated June 19 2002) WNV has not been detected in Oklahoma.
    [OK DOH--WNV:

  • Pennsylvania: (Updated June 19 2002) On May 3 2002, PA DOH confirmed the first WNV-positive dead crow in Doylestown Township, Bucks Co (found Apr 29) [More]. In 2001, the first case of WNV in PA was reported Aug 1. Two more WNV-positive birds have been found in Lehigh Co. So far in 2002, 194 birds (3 WNV-positives), 1778 mosquito pools (all negative), and 826 sentinel and vetinary samples (all negative) have been tested.
    By 2001, WNV was detected in most of PA: Erie Co in the NW, bordering Lake Erie and Western NYS; Fayette Co in the SW, bordering West Virginia; Centre Co, site of State College in central PA; and in the cluster of counties in and around Philadelphia in the SE corner, bordering NJ, Delaware and Maryland. In 2001, 3 Pennsylvania residents, the first human cases of WNV in PA were confirmed (ann Sept 19): a 60-year old Philadelphia Co man, a 49-year old Delaware Co woman and a 60-year old Fayette Co man. It was not yet determined whether these individuals contracted the virus within PA because the Fayette Co man and the Delaware Co woman had both recently traveled outside the state. Testing for WNV was done on 189 people in PA showing clinical symptoms of encephalitis.
    In response to the findings of human infection, the State DEP and the Philadelphia County Health Department applied pesticides [apparently adulticides, but not specified] to the marshy, wet areas near the I-95 corridor in SW Philadelphia and worked with Delaware and Fayette counties to identify mosquito-breeding areas, applying larvicide where appropriate (because it is colder in Fayette Co, the populations of mosquito adults had already declined).
    By the close of 2001, tests had confirmed WNV in 361 birds (first finding announced Aug 1 and including detection in birds at the Philadelphia Zoo.), 7 horses and 43 mosquito pools (first one announced Aug 29 from Erie Co). The first horse had recently traveled to PA from FL, and at the time of the announcement (Aug 15) officials were investigating in which state the horse contracted WNV.
    [PA West Nile Surveillance Program:

  • Rhode Island: (RI DOH checked June 19 2002) As of June 12, 2002 there are no reports of WNV-positive birds. WNV surveillance resumed May 28, 2002. Total WNV-positives in 2000 (first WNV-positive Aug 14, 2000): 88 birds (70 crows, 18 blue jays) of 356 birds tested, 0 mosquito pools of 1,113 mosquitos tested, 1 horse. Total WNV-positives in 2001: 245 birds, and 14 mosquito pools from 9 separate communities (first WNV-positive July 31, 2001). No mosquito pools were detected after mid Sept. WNV-positive bird were reports increased from 50 ann Sept 17, 2001 to 211 reported Oct 17, 2001, distributed across 31 communities.
    [RI DOH--West Nile:

  • Romania: (Updated May 31 2002) Human illness were reported at end of July 2001 [More]. With more than 500 clinical cases (mortality almost 10%), the 1996-97 outbreak in and near Bucharest, Romania was the largest arbroviral illness in Europe since the Ockelbo-Pogosta-Karelian fever epidemic in the 1980s, which was caused by the Sindbis virus.

  • South Carolina: (Updated June 19 2002) WNV has never been detected in SC but "is expected." Residents are cautioned " to avoid mosquito exposure and also to conduct mosquito prevention and control efforts year-round, especially during summer and fall." [More]
    By June 5, 2002, 3 humans, 9 horses, 1 dog, 53 birds, and mosquitos from 8 counties had tested WNV-negative.
    In 2001, 48 humans, 19 horses, 244 dead birds, and 48,472 mosquitos were tested for WNV, with negative results.
    [SC DOH--WNV:

  • South Dakota: (Updated June 13 2002) As of June 3, 2002, 7 birds have tested WNV-negative [More]. In 2001, 1,911 mosquitos and 2 birds tested WNV-negative.
    [SD DOH:

  • Tennessee: (Updated June 19 2002) As of June 7, 2002 3 blue jays have tested WNV-positive in Shelby Co.
    In 2001, USGS CINDI reported 46 WNV-positive birds from Shelby (44, far western TN-Memphis), Rutherford (1, central TN) and Humphrey (1, central TN) counties. A horse in Greene Co (ann Oct 25, 2001) was the first confirmed equine case of clinical WNV infection in TN. The horse, an 8-year-old mare, was euthanatized on 6 Oct 2001 after 2 days of illness. There was no history of travel or vaccination for WNV.
    [TN DOH:

  • Texas: (Updated June 20 2002) WNV was reported in Texas for the first time June 19, 2002, in 2 crows from NW Houston [More]. As of June 20, 2002, 52 birds (2 positive) and 184 horses (all negative) have been tested.
    In 2001 Texas DOH released preventative information (e.g., Oct video clip to run on news media: "Recent rains have flooded much of the state and that means a bumper crop of mosquitoes is now on the loose. With that, the chances of seeing our first illness due to West Nile virus is increasing." Also an Aug 24 disclaimer saying that WNV had not been found in Texas: "The Texas Department of Health (TDH) is getting calls from the Houston area prompted by bogus e-mails claiming the encephalitis-causing West Nile virus has been found in Texas and that people can become ill by breathing air around dead birds or by touching the birds. TDH officials say the e-mails are wrong."
    [TDH WNV Information:

  • Vermont: (VDH checked June 19 2002) In Oct 2000, a hermit thrush found dead in southern VT became VT’s first documented case of WNV. The DOA and VDH created a WNV Surveillance and Response Plan in Aug 2001 [More]. WNV was not detected in VT in 2001.
    [VDH WNV:

  • Virginia: (Updated June 19, 2002) A dead crow found in S Arlington Co Apr 8, 2002 was confirmed WNV-positive Apr 16. Two crows tested WNV-positive in Fairfax Co (found Apr 19, May 21), a county where 53 WNV-positive crows were found in 2001. Both Arlington and Fairfax Counties are in Metropolitan Washington DC, bordering on Maryland.
    In 2001, the first WNV-positive bird was not found until mid-July, 3 months later than the first detections in 2002. Tally for 2001 were 215 birds, 6 horses, and 1 mosquito pool. The 6 2001 equine cases (from USDA APHIS) were in 5 counties: Chesapeake, Madison ( Blue Ridge Highlands), Rockingham (Blue Ridge Highlands), Southampton (SE VA, on North Carolina border) and Suffolk (first equine case was reported Sept 7, 2001 from Rockingham Co in the Blue Ridge highlands [ News release]). An additional equine case, from Wakefield Co in SE Virginia was not listed in the USDA APHIS end-of-year summary for 2001. [More]
    WNV was first detected in VA in the fall of 2000.
    [VA DOH:

  • Washington DC: (Updated June 19, 2002) A crow found May 1 on Connecticut Avenue NW, near the National Zoo was the first detection of WNV in 2002 (ann May13) [More]. After infected crows were found on the grounds of the National Zoo in 2001, officials inoculated the zoo's zebras with the equine vaccine that had just been made available. As of May 13, 2002 larvicide is being applied to Culex breeding areas.
    As of Nov 19, 2001, USGS CINDI reported 3 mosquito pools and 357 WNV-positive birds, many from the NE corner of the city.
    [DC DOH:

  • West Virginia: (WV Infectious Disease checked June 19, 2002) WNV has not been detected in WV. Active surveillance for WNV runs May 1 through Nov 30. As of June 11, 2002, 11 birds have been tested, 2 negative and 9 pending.
    At the beginning of the 2001 WNV season, only Eastern Panhandle counties were involved in dead bird active surveillance. Due to increased WNV activity in surrounding states, active dead bird surveillance is now expected to be expanded to include all counties. In 2001, 28 birds were submitted for testing, 25 were negative, and 3 were unsuitable for testing.
    [WV Infectious Disease Epidemiolog Program-WNV:

  • Wisconsin: (WI DOH checked June 19, 2002) In 2001, 25 birds tested WNV-positive, mostly from Milwaukee Co (first cases ann Aug 31, 2001). WNV-positive birds were found in all quadrants of the city of Milwaukee.
    [Wisconsin Dept of Health and Family Services:

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